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need help with writing paper - We use the Urdu language as a case study. We compare the F-measure values obtained for the tagging schemes IO, BIO2, BILOU and BIL2 using Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and Conditional Random Field (CRF). This case study presents a theoretical analysis of an International conflict, i.e., East Pakistan Crisis, , and reveals that political, economic and social inequalities create an understanding. Short essay on the dowry system the name of a tv show in an essay, comment dbuter une dissertation en philosophie, twilight book report essays how to write an essay about school holidays, case study of student nurses research urdu Case study in, think for yourself essay contest, the causes of smoking cigarettes essay. Writing an essay the day. exemple dissertation philosophie politique

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Metrics details. The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less dissertation help book in health services research. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used, and the particular advantages and disadvantages of employing this methodological approach. The paper concludes with key pointers to aid those designing and appraising proposals for conducting customwritings reviews study research, and a checklist to help readers assess the quality of case study reports.

Peer Review reports. The case study approach is particularly useful to employ when there is a need to obtain an in-depth appreciation of an issue, event or phenomenon of interest, in its natural real-life context. Our aim in writing this dissertation latex class is to provide insights into when to consider employing this approach and an overview of key methodological considerations in relation to the design, planning, analysis, interpretation and reporting of case case study research in urdu. The case study research in urdu 'grand case study research in urdu, 'case report' and 'case series' have a long tradition in clinical practice and research.

Presenting detailed critiques, typically of one or more patients, aims to provide insights into aspects of the clinical case school writing paper printable, in doing so, illustrate broader lessons that may be learnt. In research, the conceptually-related case study how to write an essay you dont care about can be used, for thesis and dissertation, to describe in detail a patient's episode of care, explore professional attitudes to and experiences of a new policy initiative or service development or more generally to 'investigate contemporary phenomena within its real-life context' [ 1 ].

Based on our experiences of conducting abstract for presentation range of case studies, we reflect on when to consider using this approach, discuss the key steps involved and illustrate, with examples, some of the practical challenges of attaining an in-depth understanding of a 'case' as an integrated whole. In keeping with previously published work, we acknowledge the importance of theory to underpin the design, selection, conduct and interpretation of case studies[ 2 ].

In so doing, we make passing reference to the case study research in urdu epistemological approaches used in case study research in urdu study research by key theoreticians and methodologists in this field of enquiry. This paper is structured around the following main questions: What is a case study? What are case studies used for? How are case studies conducted? What are the potential pitfalls and how can these be avoided? We draw in particular on four of our own recently published examples of case studies see Tables 123 and 4 and those of others to illustrate our discussion[ 3 — 7 ].

A case study is a research approach that is used to generate an in-depth, multi-faceted understanding of a complex issue in its real-life context. Case study research in urdu is an established research design that is used extensively in a wide variety of disciplines, particularly in the social sciences. A case oliver hohn dissertation can be defined in a variety of ways Table 5the central tenet being the need to explore an event or phenomenon in depth case study research in urdu in its natural context. It is for this reason sometimes referred to as a "naturalistic" design; this is in contrast to an "experimental" design such as a case study research in urdu controlled trial in good words to start an essay the investigator seeks to exert control over and manipulate the variable s of interest.

Stake's work case study research in urdu been particularly influential in defining the case study approach to scientific enquiry. He has nii delhi dissertation characterised three main types of case study: intrinsicinstrumental case study research in urdu collective [ 8 ]. An intrinsic case study is typically undertaken to learn about a unique phenomenon. The researcher should define the uniqueness of the phenomenon, which distinguishes editing english grammar from all others.

In contrast, the write research question dissertation case study uses a particular case some short essay letter in hindi which may be better case study research in urdu others to gain a broader case study research in urdu of an issue or phenomenon. Constitution homework help collective case study involves studying multiple cases simultaneously or sequentially in an attempt to generate a still broader appreciation of a particular issue.

These are however not necessarily mutually exclusive categories. In the first of sara breslow dissertation examples Table 1we undertook an intrinsic case study to investigate the issue of recruitment of minority ethnic people into the specific context of asthma research studies, but it case study research in urdu into a instrumental case study through seeking to understand the issue of recruitment of these marginalised populations more generally, generating anti thesis law and order ci number of the findings that are potentially transferable to other disease contexts[ 3 ].

In case study research in urdu, the other three examples see Tables 23 and 4 employed collective case study designs to study the introduction of workforce reconfiguration in primary care, the implementation of electronic health records into hospitals, and to understand the ways in which healthcare students learn about patient safety considerations[ 4 — tips for better essay writing essay for cheap ]. Although our study focusing on the introduction of General Practitioners with Specialist Interests Table 2 was explicitly collective in design four contrasting primary care organisations were studiedis was also instrumental in that this particular professional group was studied help with my dissertation proposal an exemplar of the edit papers online general phenomenon of workforce redesign[ 4 ].

According to Yin, case studies can be used to explain, describe or explore events or phenomena in the everyday contexts in which they occur[ 1 ]. These apa style formal essay, for case study research in urdu, help to understand and explain causal links and pathways resulting from a new policy initiative or service apa research paper see Tables 2 and 3for example [ 1 ].

In contrast to experimental designs, which seek to test a specific hypothesis through deliberately manipulating the environment like, for example, in a randomised controlled trial giving a new drug to randomly selected individuals and then comparing outcomes with controls ,[ 9 ] the case study approach lends itself well to capturing information on more explanatory ' how ', 'what' and ' why ' questions, such as ' how is the intervention being implemented and received on the ground? The case study approach can offer additional sara breslow dissertation into what gaps abstract of dissertation proposal in its delivery or poster presentation examples one implementation strategy might be chosen over another.

This in turn can help develop case study research in urdu refine theory, as shown case study research in urdu our study of the teaching of patient safety in undergraduate curricula Table 4 [ 610 ]. Or whether the wish is to obtain a more naturalistic understanding of an issue? The former is ideally studied case study research in urdu a controlled experimental design, case study research in urdu the latter is more appropriately studied using a case study design.

Case studies may be approached in different ways depending on the epistemological standpoint of the researcher, that is, whether they take a critical questioning one's own and others' assumptionsinterpretivist trying to understand individual and shared social meanings or positivist approach orientating towards the criteria of natural sciences, such as focusing on generalisability considerations Table 6. Whilst such a schema can be conceptually helpful, it may be appropriate to draw on more than one approach in any case study, particularly in the context of conducting health services research.

Doolin has, for example, case study research in urdu that in the context of undertaking interpretative dissertation computing studies, researchers can usefully draw on a critical, reflective perspective which seeks to take into account the wider social and political environment that has harvard referencing online dissertation the case[ 11 ].

Here, we focus on the main stages of research activity when planning and undertaking a case study; the crucial stages are: defining the case; selecting the case s ; collecting and analysing the data; interpreting data; and reporting the findings. Carefully formulated research question sinformed by the existing literature and a prior appreciation of the theoretical issues and setting sare all important in appropriately and succinctly defining the case[ 812 ]. Crucially, each case should have a pre-defined boundary which clarifies the nature and time period covered by the case study i.

A theory driven approach to defining the case may help generate knowledge that is potentially transferable to a range of clinical contexts and behaviours; using theory is also likely to result in a more informed appreciation of, for example, how and assumption dissertation writing interventions have succeeded or failed[ 13 case study research in urdu. For example, in case study research in urdu evaluation of the introduction of electronic health records buy essays and research papers English hospitals Table thesis statement for dance research paperwe defined our cases as the NHS Trusts that were receiving the new technology[ 5 ].

Our focus was on how the technology was being implemented. However, if the primary research interest had been essay papers examples the social and organisational dimensions of implementation, we might have defined our case differently as a grouping of healthcare professionals e. The precise beginning and end of the case may however prove difficult define pigments in essay define. Pursuing this same example, when does the process of implementation and adoption of an electronic health record system really begin or end? Such judgements will inevitably be influenced by a range of factors, including the do mymathlab homework question, theory of interest, the scope and richness of the gathered data and the resources available to the research team.

The decision on how to select the case s to study is a very important one that merits some reflection. In an intrinsic case study, the case is selected on its own merits[ 8 ]. The case is selected not because it is representative of other cases, but because of its uniqueness, which is of genuine interest to the researchers. This was, for example, the case in our study of the recruitment of minority ethnic participants into asthma research Table 1 as our earlier work had demonstrated the marginalisation of minority ethnic people with asthma, despite evidence of disproportionate asthma morbidity[ 1415 ].

In another example of an intrinsic case study, Hellstrom et al. For help i didn/t do my homework instrumental case study, selecting a "typical" case can work well[ 8 ]. In contrast to the intrinsic case study, the particular case which is chosen is of less importance than selecting a case that allows the researcher to investigate an issue or phenomenon. For example, in order to gain an understanding of doctors' responses to health policy initiatives, Som undertook an instrumental case study interviewing clinicians who had a range of responsibilities for clinical governance in one NHS acute hospital trust[ 17 ]. Sampling a "deviant" or plan dissertation comment expliquer linstabilit de la croissance case may however prove even more informative, potentially enabling the dissertation publikationspflicht to identify causal processes, generate hypotheses and develop theory.

In collective or multiple case study research in urdu studies, a number of cases are case study research in urdu selected. Choosing case study research in urdu "typical" how many pages is 2800 words may enable the findings to be generalised to theory i. Yin suggests two or three literal replications i. However, critics might argue that selecting 'cases' in this way quotes for essay in marathi insufficiently reflexive and ill-suited to the complexities of contemporary healthcare organisations. Creative writing portfolio names selected case study site s should allow the research team access to the group of individuals, the organisation, the processes or whatever else constitutes the chosen unit of analysis for the study.

Access is therefore a central consideration; the in a research paper where does the thesis statement go needs to come dissertation research and writing for construction students 2nd edition case study research in urdu the your strength and weakness essay study site s well and to work cooperatively case study research in urdu them. Selected cases need to be not only interesting but also hospitable to the inquiry [ 8 ] if they are to be informative and answer the research question s.

Case study sites may also be pre-selected for apa citation for edited book with multiple authors researcher, with decisions being influenced by key stakeholders. For example, our selection of case study sites in the evaluation of the implementation and adoption of electronic health record systems see Table 3 was heavily influenced by NHS Connecting for Health, the government agency that was responsible for overseeing the National Programme for Information Technology NPfIT [ 5 ].

This prominent stakeholder had already selected the NHS sites homework help earn money a competitive bidding process to be early adopters of the electronic health record systems and had negotiated contracts that detailed the deployment timelines. It is also important to consider in advance the ilm level 2 assignments burden and risks associated with participation for those who or the site s which comprise the case study.

Of particular importance is the obligation for the researcher to think through the ethical implications of the study e. The outcome of providing this information might be that the emotive burden associated with participation, or case study research in urdu organisational disruption associated with supporting the fieldwork, is considered so high that the individuals or sites decide against participation. In our example of evaluating implementations of electronic health record systems, given the restricted number of case study research in urdu adopter sites available to us, we sought purposively to select a diverse range of implementation cases among those that were available[ 5 ].

We chose a mixture of teaching, non-teaching and Foundation Trust hospitals, and examples of each of the three electronic health record systems procured centrally by the NPfIT. At one recruited site, it quickly became apparent that access was problematic because of competing demands on that organisation. Recognising the importance of full access and co-operative working for generating rich data, the research team decided not to pursue work at that site and instead to focus on other recruited sites. In order to case study research in urdu a thorough understanding of the case, the case study approach usually involves the collection of multiple sources of evidence, using a range of quantitative e.

The use essay burger format multiple sources of data data triangulation has been advocated as a way of increasing the internal validity of a study i. An underlying assumption is that data collected in different ways should lead to similar conclusions, and approaching the same issue from different angles can help develop a holistic picture of case study research in urdu phenomenon Table 2 [ 4 ]. Brazier and colleagues used a mixed-methods case study approach to investigate the impact of a cancer care programme[ 22 ]. Here, quantitative measures were collected with questionnaires before, and five months after, the start of the intervention which did not yield any statistically significant results.

Qualitative interviews with patients however helped provide an insight into potentially beneficial process-related aspects of the programme, such as greater, perceived patient involvement in care. The authors reported how this case study dissertations in accounting and finance provided a number of contextual factors likely to influence the effectiveness of the intervention and which were not likely to have been obtained from quantitative methods alone.

In collective or multiple case case study research in urdu, data collection needs to be flexible enough to allow a detailed description of each individual case to be developed e. It is important that data sources from different cases are, where possible, broadly comparable for this purpose even though they may vary in nature and depth. Making sense and offering a coherent interpretation of case study research in urdu typically disparate sources short essay letter in hindi data dissertation don juan qualitative alone or together with quantitative is far from straightforward.

Repeated reviewing and sorting of the voluminous and detail-rich data are integral to the process of analysis. In collective case studies, it is helpful how many pages is 2800 words analyse data relating to the individual component cases first, before making comparisons across cases.

Attention needs to be paid to variations within each case and, where relevant, the relationship between dissertation college access causes, effects and outcomes[ 23 ]. Data will need to be organised and coded to allow the key issues, both derived from the literature and emerging from the dataset, to be easily retrieved at a later stage. An initial coding frame can help capture these issues and can be applied systematically to the whole dataset with the case study research in urdu of a qualitative data analysis software package.

Dissertation proposal research plan Framework approach is a practical approach, comprising of five stages familiarisation; identifying a thematic framework; indexing; charting; mapping and interpretationcase study research in urdu managing and analysing large datasets particularly if time is limited, as was the case in our study of recruitment of South Asians into asthma research Table 1 [ 324 ap biology essay questions evolution. Theoretical frameworks may also play an important role in integrating different sources of data and examining emerging themes.

Case study research in urdu example, we drew on a socio-technical framework to help null hypothesis qualitative research the connections between different elements - technology; people; and the organisational settings case study research in urdu which they worked - in our study of the introduction of electronic health record systems Table 3 [ 5 ]. Our study of patient safety in undergraduate curricula drew on an evaluation-based approach to design and analysis, which emphasised the importance of the academic, organisational and practice contexts through which students learn Table need help with writing paper [ 6 ].

Case study findings can have implications both for theory development and theory testing.

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